After a day of campaigning on Saturday, Mr Pence was seen wearing a mask as he returned to Washington aboard Air Force Two once the news of Mr Short's diagnosis was made public.
The latest positive result at the White House comes after president Donald Trump was admitted to hospital with coronavirus earlier this month.
Marc Short, the chief of staff for vice-president Mike Pence, has tested positive for coronavirus.
A spokesman for the vice-president said Mr Pence would maintain his aggressive presidential election campaign schedule "in accordance with the CDC guidelines for essential personnel".
Mr Short tested positive for coronavirus on Saturday. Mr Pence and his wife, Karen, have also been tested.
"Vice-president Pence and Mrs Pence both tested negative for Covid-19 today, and remain in good health," Devin O’Malley said.
Mr Short is Mr Pence's closest aide and the vice-president is considered a "close contact" under Centres for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines.
Those guidelines mandate that essential workers exposed to someone with coronavirus closely monitor for symptoms of Covid-19 and wear a mask whenever around other people.