United Kingdom

Poor night's sleep increases the risk of sending rude work emails in the morning, study finds 

From under-eye bags to headaches, many of us suffer the side effects if we've not had a decent night's sleep. 

Now, a study has revealed that a poor night's snooze may also increase the risk of you firing off grumping work emails in the morning.   

The research shows tiredness is linked to 'cyber incivility' - rudeness or impoliteness in emails or text messages.

Scroll down for video 

A study has revealed that a poor night's snooze may increase the risk of you firing off grumping work emails in the morning (stock image)


- Preschool (3-5 years): 10-13 hours

- School-age (6-13 years): 9-11 hours

- Teen (14-17 years): 8-10 hours

- Young adult (18-25) 7-9 hours

- Adult (26-64): 7-9 hours

- Older adult (65 or more) 7-8 hours

Source: Sleep Foundation 

In the study, researchers from West Texas A&M University worked with 131 full time working adults, who completed surveys twice a day for two weeks, measuring sleep duration, tiredness and cyber incivility.

Questionaires were sent at 7am each workday, which included how much sleep they had the night before.

At 4pm each workday, another questionnaire was sent which measured how tired they were and if they had sent off rude or impolite emails that day.

A total of 945 morning surveys and 843 afternoon surveys were completed.

Examples of cyber incivility measures were 'ignored a request to schedule a meeting that someone made through email' and 'made demeaning or derogatory remarks through email'.

The study found that, after a shorter night of sleep, employees had more self regulatory fatigue and therefore engaged in higher levels of cyber incivility at work, especially if they scored low in agreeableness.

Sleep duration was negatively associated with self-regulatory fatigue, which was positively related to cyber incivility. 

Agreeableness moderated the relationship between sleep duration and self-regulatory fatigue, as well as the indirect effect of sleep duration on cyber incivility.

Study lead author Trevor Watkins said: 'Our findings build on previous research that suggests that self-control is restored while people sleep, to the extent that after a poor night's sleep, people lose their self-restraint and are more likely to engage in cyber incivility at work the next day.'

Sleep duration was negatively associated with self-regulatory fatigue, which was positively related to cyber incivility (stock image)

The researchers said that as information technology has advanced, employees have shifted an increasing amount of their interactions with each other to electronic means such as email, discussion boards, video conferencing, and text messages.

They said: 'This has provided many benefits, including efficient and timely communication across vast distances.

'However, in addition to these benefits, electronic communication also presents the possibility of cyber incivility. Cyber incivility is defined as 'communicative behaviour exhibited in computer mediated interactions that violate workplace norms of mutual respect.

'Thus, contemporary workplaces which lean heavily on electronic communication expose employees to cyber incivility.'

Previous research has focussed on incivility in the workplace in general.

The authors wrote: 'Although this research was useful in making important initial steps in the incivility literature, this approach of focusing on individual differences and organisational contexts promotes the implicit assumption that workplace incivility and by extension workplace cyber incivility is determined solely by workplace phenomena.

'We maintain employees' ability to resist this temptation and suppress urges to engage in workplace cyber incivility should be determined in part by their ability to exert self-control. 

'Existing research indicates that self-control is restored while people sleep, such that after short nights of sleep people suffer a lack of self-control.

'Accordingly, we propose that sleep at home on a given night will influence cyber incivility the next day, with self-regulatory fatigue as the causal mechanism. In other words, sleep is an important causal determinant of cyber incivility that originates from outside of the work context.'


  1. Having a clean, comfortable bed that supports your body will make it easier for you to relax and wind down each night.
  2. Exercise for between 20-30 minutes each day. If possible, try to plan your workout at least 5-6 hours before bed, as exercising too late into the night can impair sleep quality.
  3. Increase your bright light exposure during the day, and reduce it in the evening to help regulate your circadian rhythm.
  4. Avoid coffee, tea and cola drinks in the evenings, as caffeine can stay in the bloodstream for up to 8 hours. Instead, drink plenty of water. 
  5. Certain supplements are beneficial for those struggling to switch off and maintain a good quality of sleep. Melatonin, magnesium and glycine are all popular choices that can improve sleep and help the body to relax.
  6. Cutting down on alcohol will help. This is because it affects your melatonin production, making it difficult to fall or stay asleep.
  7. Regulate the temperature of a room by keeping blinds or curtains closed during hot days to avoid the sun overheating your room.
  8. Try to set your body an internal alarm clock by sticking to a strict bedtime and rise routine.
  9. Avoid hot or spicy foods that can aggravate your body and interfere with your sleep quality.
  10. Those suffering from insomnia should avoid an afternoon nap because if it lasts too long it could lead to a vicious cycle of not being able to sleep again the following night.

Football news:

Phil Jones will be in the Manchester United squad for the game against West Ham. He has not played since January 2020
Falcao scored the winning goal in the 96th minute for Athletic, coming on as a substitute in the 76th. He has 2 goals in 2 games for Rayo Vallecano
Coach Wycombe about 1:6 with City: A special 22 minutes! An incredible event for our fans
Strakosha could not hold back tears when he saw the Lazio fans' banner. He was supported after an autogall with Galatasaray
Coach Spezia Motta on Juventus: They are going through a difficult moment, but we must show the maximum, play our football
Ten Hag refused to answer the question about the appointment to Barca: Do you have any business with Ajax
Alexander Golovin: I need to support young players. Being a leader, an example to follow - that's what I strive for