United Kingdom

Coronavirus UK: Manchester revellers hit the streets before pubs shut under Tier 3 lockdown

Revellers in Manchester took to the streets for a final night on the town before thousands of venues closed their doors for a second time as the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown. 

Groups of young people were seen entering pubs, sitting outside trendy bars and gathering in the streets across the North West city ahead of the most severe Covid-19 restrictions coming into force at midnight.  

But some licensed premises stood empty ahead of the 10pm curfew, while nearly 2,000 pubs are expected to shutter unless they serve 'substantial meals' in a devastating blow to the local economy. 

Around 2.8 million people in Greater Manchester will join some 3.1 million in Lancashire and the Liverpool City Region already under Tier 3. Social mixing will be banned both indoors and in private gardens, while the Rule of Six will apply in some outdoor settings such as parks, public gardens and sports courts.

Local leaders help the Government to determine whether other venues like gyms or casinos should be closed. 

In Greater Manchester, the new measures could lead to the closure of more than 1,800 pubs and 140 wine bars, as well as 277 betting shops and 12 casinos, according to the real estate adviser Altus Group. 

The British Beer and Pub Association has warned that Tier 3 restrictions will have a 'devastating impact on pubs, brewers and their wider supply chain', adding that the 'survival of all pubs is hanging perilously in the balance'.   

It comes after a furious war of words between Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham and Boris Johnson, who tonight denied waiting until London faced lockdown to unveil eye-watering new bailout measures for the North.

The Prime Minister is facing anger from northern leaders that many have been subject to local restrictions for weeks and months, but the support on offer has only been stepped up now.

The package announced today includes billions of pounds to keep the self-employed afloat and prevent stricken bars and restaurants in Tier Two laying off millions of workers. But Mr Johnson denied that the timing was related to the capital and places like Essex being put under restrictions. 

In other coronavirus developments today: 

Revellers in Manchester gather outside a bar before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown from midnight tonight

Drinkers in Manchester on Thursday night are having one last night out before the city goes into Tier 3 lockdown

Revellers in Manchester gather on the street before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown from midnight

Men walk past bars on Dale Street in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force from tonight

Revellers in Manchester gather on the street before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown from midnight

People gather outside bars in Manchester before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown from midnight tonight

People queue to enter a bar on Peter Street in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force

Revellers enjoy a night out in the city centre before new restrictions come into force in Greater Manchester

People gather outside bars in Manchester city centre before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown from midnight 

People gather in the street in Manchester city centre before Tier 3 coronavirus restrictions come into force from midnight

People gather in the street in Manchester city centre before Tier 3 coronavirus restrictions come into force from midnight

People wait outside a Sainsbury's supermarket in Manchester ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force from midnight

People walk and laugh in the street in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force from midnight

Revellers are spoken to by police in Manchester city centre as the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown

Police officers patrol as people gather outside bars in Manchester before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown

Police officers stand guard in the street in Manchester city centre before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown

Police officers walk in front of a bar with a sign mentioning Andy Burnham ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force

Two men enjoy a drink in The Peveril Of The Peak pub ahead of new Tier-3 Covid-19 restrictions coming into force tonight

A member of the bar staff pulls a pint in a Wetherspoons pub in Leigh ahead of new restrictions coming into force

Two women drink in an empty bar on Dale Street in Manchester city centre ahead of the Tier 3 shutdown coming into force

Drinkers sit outside Brewdog in Manchester city centre ahead of the Tier 3 shutdown coming into force

A staff member looks at a mobile phone in the doorway of a bar on Dale Street in Manchester city centre

People gather outside a bar in Manchester before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown at midnight

Drinkers outside a bar on Thomas Street in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force

A member of staff gestures as customers leave a bar in Manchester ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force

A member of staff packs up equipment outside a bar in Manchester before the region is plunged into Tier 3 shutdown

A member of staff packs up equipment outside a bar in Manchester before the region is plunged into Tier 3 shutdown

Members of the public are seen in a bar in Manchester's Northern Quarter ahead of Tier 3 lockdown coming into force

Staff at the Quarter House begin to clear away tables and chairs in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 shutdown

A member of staff clears away the furniture from an outside bar in Manchester ahead of Tier 3 lockdown

Chairs are cleared away outside a bar in Manchester's Northern Quarter ahead of Tier 3 lockdown coming into force

Around 2.8 million people in Greater Manchester will join 3.1 million in Lancashire and the Liverpool City Region in Tier 3

What is the row over Tier 3 bailouts?  

The Government has been engaged in brutal haggling with local leaders across swathes of England about the financial package linked to entering Tier 3 restrictions.

The funding is on top of the Government's wider job support scheme for workers put on hold due to lockdown, and business grants. 

What did Liverpool City Region get? 

The Government has said 'baseline' funding for the top tier includes £8 per head of population to bolster local contact tracing and enforcement.

Liverpool received £14million on this strand of funding. And there was another £30million allocated to support businesses affected by the squeeze, around £20 per capita. 

Lancashire 

Lancashire was the second area placed into Tier 3 lockdown. 

It will receive £12million for contact tracing and enforcement, as well as £30m in business support - broadly in line with the Liverpool settlement.

Greater Manchester  

The contact tracing and enforcement settlement came to £22million due to the higher population in the region.

The Government initially offered around £55million in business support, roughly proportional to the other packages.

The final offer was £60million, £22 per head. But Andy Burnham originally asked for £90million and only came down to £65million before quitting the talks. Mr Johnson has said the £60million will still be allocated. 

South Yorkshire 

The contact tracing element agreed with Labour mayor Dan Jarvis was £11million.

There is also a £30million package of business support - £22 per head and roughly in line with the allocation for the other regions.

Many bars in the area, including the legendary Swan Street pub Bar Fringe, are now desperately trying to sell their beer before it has to either be poured down the drain or left to go bad. 

The venue opened from 2pm today selling its cask ales for just £2 a pint, including Hobgoblin IPA and Mad Dog Brewing Co's Mad World bitter APA. It will also be selling bottles to take away as it shifts stock.   

Across the road, The Smithfield Tavern is in a similar predicament.

The tap house for local brewery Blackjack is going to be closing for the foreseeable future tonight and will be selling all its cask beers on a 'pay as you feel' basis until last orders.

Adapting to yet more lockdown restrictions, the brewery itself is also launching a delivery service, selling cask beers in either five or 10-litre boxes, dropped to your doorstep.

'We have a lot of cask ale to save,' they said.

In the Northern Quarter, Port Street Beer House will also be forced to close under the new restrictions.

The popular bar has said it needs to 'get rid' of as much beer as possible before it's wasted and will be slashing prices in half, with cask from as little as £1.75 a pint.

Across town, subterranean Victorian drinking den The Gas Lamp will also be forced to shut from tonight.

Announcing they'd be selling cask beer for £2 a pint today, they posted: 'Right then people, you all know the score, Andy Burnham fought our corner but Boris just swanned in and took a dump right on all our doorsteps!'

Baseball bar Base MCR is also going out swinging before it's forced to shut from tonight.

Based in the railway arches in the Green Quarter near Victoria Station, the venue has launched its own 'Help Out to Bat Out' scheme, with all pints £2 and all batting cages available for £10 per 30 minutes.

In nearby Sadler's Yard, The Pilcrow will also be locking up tonight and has a lot of crisps to shift – giving them away free as a 'side' with every pint. 

A Manchester business owner said he was 'wary' of the funding announcement for firms and workers hit by coronavirus restrictions.

Simon Kendal, 41, of BaseBar, told the PA news agency: 'I know a lot of businesses are saying it's North v South, but that's not the way to look at things.

'However, it does feel a little bit suss when these restrictions were in place elsewhere that they now start looking at the bigger picture. It has not always been in the limelight.

'Even with the backdated funding for Tier 2, I am not always 100 per cent sure, because there is always a little bit of fine print that goes with it.

'If we can get enough money to stay open, I will look at that. I am still a bit wary. Last time there was an announcement it helped some businesses and hindered others.' 

It's been a grim week for publicans, but there was at least some good news today as Chancellor Rishi Sunak announced more support for the stricken sector.  

The Treasury's new package includes making the Job Support Scheme, which replaces the current furlough system, more generous and grants of £2,100 available for firms in Tier 2 areas of England.

Importantly for Greater Manchester pubs, many of which have been under equivalent restrictions or even tougher ones since the end of July, payments will be backdated to August.

The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) has welcomed the news, with chief executive Tom Stainer said: 'Pubs in areas under Tier 2 restrictions felt like they had the worst of all worlds, with additional restrictions reducing trade further but without receiving additional support – so these new financial support packages, which CAMRA had called for, will be warmly welcomed by the beer and pubs sector.  

People gather in the street in Manchester city centre before Tier 3 coronavirus restrictions come into force from midnight

Revellers ride threw Manchester city centre on their motorbikes as the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown

Revellers take to Manchester's streets ahead of Boris Johnson's enforced Tier 3 coronavirus restrictions coming into force

A woman smokes a cigarette on Dale Street in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force

Staff members clear away the furniture from an outside bar in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 lockdown

People gather outside a bar in Manchester before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown at midnight

A man drinks in an Irish bar in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force from tonight

Unused tables and chairs are seen outside Dukes Bar in Castlefield in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 shutdown

People make their way home in Manchester ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force from midnight tonight

A woman finishes her drink in a bar in Manchester city centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions coming into force from midnight

An employee starts his shift at The Britons Protection pub in Manchester ahead of the city entering Tier 3 tonight

The owner of OnBar sits in his empty closed premises before the region is plunged into Tier 3 lockdown at midnight

Staff at the Quarter House begin to clear away tables and chairs in Manchester ahead of Tier 3 shutdown coming into force

An employee starts the day at the City Arms pub in Manchester ahead of the city entering Tier 3 tonight

Bar staff are seen preparing for Tier 3 lockdown in Manchester City Centre ahead of Tier 3 restrictions kicking in

Greater Manchester will go into Tier 3 lockdown from midnight, meaning a number of new restrictions will come into force

The city of Manchester is facing a winter of hardship, with thousands of businesses set to be affected by the new lockdown

While businesses forced to close in Tier 3 areas can access significant funding, there is less available for 'high risk' Tier 2 regions such as London and Essex - even though the ban on households mixing indoors means many are getting hammered

Chancellor Rishi Sunak (pictured today) has unveiled another bailout worth billions of pounds in a bid to boost support for stricken businesses under Tier 2 lockdown and the self-employed

Return of the shopping trolley police: 'Power mad' Welsh first minister Mark Drakeford orders supermarkets to sell only 'essential goods' when 17-day 'fire break' lockdown starts in Wales tomorrow 

Welsh supermarkets have been ordered to only sell 'essential goods' to customers during the country's 17-day lockdown.

Stores will be told they are unable to sell items such as clothes to shoppers, and to prioritise other products deemed to be more important.

It means a likely return to the scenes witnessed at the beginning of the pandemic when there were rows over the contents of people's shopping trollies. 

Many retailers will be forced to shut during the 'firebreak' lockdown, when it begins on Friday at 6pm, but food shops, off-licences and pharmacies can stay open.

Despite there being just hours before it comes into effect, the Welsh Government was unable to provide clarity tonight on what is defined as 'essential' nor how enforcement of the rules would look. 

The lockdown is significantly more severe than England's three-tier system, with Wales demanding people stay at home except for limited purposes such as exercise, and ordering the complete closure of pubs, restaurants, hotels and non-essential shops.

By contrast, even in England's strictest Tier Three areas, some social meetings are allowed outdoors and pubs can stay open providing they offer customers a 'substantial meal'. 

As a result, revellers took to the streets of Cardiff city centre this evening to enjoy one last night out on the town before 

'New funds for councils to issue grants for pubs and hospitality businesses, together with reducing the contributions businesses have to pay towards staff wages, will give pubs in areas with high and very high restrictions a much better chance of surviving.

'We hope that the Government will now encourage all local councils to use the 5 per cent of additional discretionary funding available to make sure that breweries and cider makers receive grants and the financial support they need to cope with reduced trade.

'But we are not out of the woods yet. The Chancellor must look at a long-term package of financial support covering pubs and brewers in all tiers to help them cope with reduced trade and knocked consumer confidence from measures like the 10pm curfew. 

'This would make sure we avoid permanent mass pub closures and keep our locals, which are at the heart of our communities, open and alive through the difficult weeks and months ahead.'

It comes as Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham today invited Boris Johnson to the city for face-to-face talks to 'clear the air' as he said he does not want a 'lingering political argument' with the Government. 

Mr Burnham has suffered a bruising week after talks with ministers over moving Greater Manchester into Tier 3 restrictions collapsed, prompting Mr Johnson to unilaterally impose the rules.

The two sides failed to reach an agreement after Mr Burnham initially demanded £90million for businesses before saying he could not accept less than £65million, but the PM would go no higher than £60million.

It prompted a furious war of words but Mr Burnham said this morning he now wants to 'reset things on a better footing' as he claimed to be 'misunderstood down there' in Westminster. 

He later told MPs that the Government still 'holds all of the power and all of the money' and that mayors have to 'go on bended knee' to ministers to secure funding as he called for devolution to be made a 'reality'.

However, the chances of a repairing of relations appears slim after Commons Leader Jacob Rees-Mogg accused Mr Burnham of 'playing party politics of the cheapest and most disagreeable kind'.

Meanwhile, Mr Johnson this afternoon denied he had gone to 'war' with Mr Burnham and other local leaders as he said that was 'not the case' and stressed he had had 'great conversations' with politicians across the country.  

'The issue is really one of basic fairness between various parts of the country that are having to experience regional restrictions, that's what we were trying to achieve in the last 10 days,' Mr Johnson told a press conference.

'What we are doing now is bringing forward measures that are designed to help businesses that can't trade as they normally would and who are experiencing a fall in income.

'And we are doing it across the whole country, it's backdated to August.' Mr Sunak said: 'This is simply about fairness, it's about treating people the same wherever they live and whatever their situation.'  

He said when the earlier Job Support Scheme was designed, it was at a time when controls were being eased.

Boris Johnson (left) insisted he was not 'at war' with the North today as he and Rishi Sunak (right) denied waiting until London faced lockdown to unveil eye-watering new bailout measures

Furious Scottish landlords demand Nicola Sturgeon BANS alcohol in supermarkets and only serves it in pubs and restaurants as they launch legal action to stop her Covid lockdown 

Furious Scottish landlords are today calling on Nicola Sturgeon to ban alcohol sales in supermarkets and off-licences as the nation's hospitality chiefs launch legal action against Covid-19 restrictions imposed on the trade by Holyrood.

Don Lawson, owner of the Inverness bar Johnny Foxes, proposed the drastic measure to preserve the 'livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of people' most at risk from the Scottish First Minister's draconian shutdowns. 

In an impassioned letter to Miss Sturgeon, who yesterday announced that pub and restaurant closures across the central belt will be extended by a week to November 2, he warned that the industry was facing 'an unprecedented crisis'.

Mr Lawson 'hundreds of thousands' of jobs would be destroyed unless the Scottish Government bans all alcohol sales in supermarkets and off-licences. 

'Many of our beloved pubs are at real risk, with significantly reduced trade and increased costs as a result of questionable restrictions,' he said in his letter.

'I feel the answer to the hospitality conundrum is as follows, that the Scottish Government bans all alcohol sales in supermarkets and off-licences.

'Allow the sale of alcohol to be restricted to pubs and restaurants – this will boost local economies and safeguard thousands of jobs.'

Mr Lawson's bar in Inverness is not affected by Miss Sturgeon's blanket shutdown of licensed premises across Scotland's central belt, which is managed by Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Lanarkshire, Ayrshire & Arran, Lothian, and Forth Valley.

However, the Johnny Foxes landlord is not be allowed to serve alcohol indoors and has to close his business at 6pm in line with the nation-wide hospitality curfew.

Meanwhile, five hospitality industry bodies in Scotland have launched legal action against shutdown measures which are crippling the trade. 

A joint pre-action letter has been sent to Holyrood by the Scottish Beer & Pub Association, the Scottish Licensed Trade Association, UKHospitality (Scotland), the Scottish Hospitality Group and the Night Time Industries Association Scotland. 

'It was done over the summer with a view to the economy being open and restrictions being lifted. Obviously the last few weeks, that has not been as those businesses had expected,' Mr Sunak said.

'Those restrictions were coming back, they were having a cumulative effect on the ground, particularly in Tier 2 areas, particularly in hospitality.'

In a dramatic Commons statement earlier, the Chancellor boosted support for sectors like hospitality after a wave of anger at 'loopholes' in his existing provision. He said he had listened to industry leaders and recognised that 'open but struggling businesses require further support'. 

Mr Sunak admitted that he could not give any precise figures for the overall bill, saying the schemes were 'demand led'. But it appears the announcements today mean £20billion more spending by the government on just three flagship schemes over the next six months, with more than £200billion splurged in total to prop up the economy. 

They will fuel alarm at the spiralling outlay after it emerged the Government has borrowed more than a billion pounds every day during the pandemic so far. 

In crucial changes to the Job Support Scheme, the Government will cover more of the cost of staff on reduced hours, with just a 5 per cent contribution required from employers towards unworked hours.

There will be a one day a week minimum hours requirement, down from 33 per cent – lowering the threshold for what classes as a 'viable' job. The new scheme is expected to cost a billion pounds a month for every two million people who used it – which could be £12billion over the next six months.

Firms in 'high risk' Tier 2 areas will get bolstered grants of up to £2,100 a month, with the move backdated to ward off criticism from northern hotspots that have been under restrictions for months.

 Mr Sunak said 150,000 across England could benefit, with the costs potentially hitting £1.2billion over the next six months. Extra cash will be handed to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland for their own schemes. 

The package for the self-employed is being hugely scaled up, with grants increased from 20 per cent to 40 per cent of average profits until April – meaning the maximum quarterly payment will now be £3,750. The cost up to January is estimated at £3.1billion, but could end up double that by the spring if the higher rate is maintained.

While businesses forced to close in the harshest Tier 3 areas can access significant funding, there has been less available for 'high risk' Tier 2 regions such as London and Essex – even though the ban on households mixing indoors means that many are getting hammered. 

Tory MPs have been increasingly alarmed at the gap, amid warnings that the crisis is set to drag on well into next year. Shocking official figures today show that 17 per cent of firms in the accommodation and food services industry are at 'severe' risk of becoming insolvent. 

Firms forced to close in Tier 3, such as betting shops and soft play centres, will be able to furlough their workers on two-thirds of wages.

But there has been an outcry from hospitality firms in Tier 2, whose business models have been wrecked by restrictions that mean people can no longer meet socially indoors. Tier 2 restrictions now cover many of the most heavily populated parts of the country, including London, Birmingham, York, Essex and the North East. 

Under the Jobs Support Scheme (JSS), which officially launches from November 1, staff can have their wages topped up to 77 per cent of normal.  The state and employer each fund 50 per cent of the cost of hours not worked. But critics have warned that the scheme gives too little incentive to firms to retain staff.

But Mr Sunak cut the cost of the employer's contribution, with the state picking up more of the bill.  The Treasury has modelled costings of £1billion per month for every two million people on the scheme. 

That would give a £6billion cost over the next six months, although much of that money was already committed. However, the bill could rise dramatically if more people sign up. 

Mr Sunak also increased the amount of profits covered by the forthcoming self-employed grant from 20 per cent to 40 per cent, meaning the maximum grant will increase from £1,875 to £3,750. That means a 'further' £3.1billionn of support to the self-employed between November to January alone, according to the Treasury.

If the next grant covering February to April is kept at the higher rate that would be roughly the same again.  

Life in Tier Three: From meeting relatives to going to the gym, how life will change for Mancunians dragged into the toughest lockdown 

Boris Johnson  confirmed that Greater Manchester will be plunged into Tier 3 coronavirus restrictions at midnight on Friday after local leaders caved to the Government's demands.

The region is being moved into the 'very high risk' ranking from its current Tier 2 status as public officials scramble to suppress Covid-19. Regulations will be reviewed every 28 days and expire after six months. 

Andy Burnham, the Labour Mayor of Greater Manchester, has been bounced into accepting the tough shutdown measures after an ill-fated attempt to get more bailout money from the Treasury. 

Justifying why No10 has forced Greater Manchester into a Tier 3 lockdown, Mr Johnson said action is needed to reduce the R rate and control the virus in the North, where the disease is most prevalent. 

Mr Burnham refused to accept the PM's advice because he was unhappy about the financial support on offer for local businesses. As well as forcing the rules onto Manchester, Government ministers are also considering tougher lockdown rules for Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and the North East.

So how will life change for Mancunians as the region is slapped with more draconian curbs on society and the local economy? MailOnline has the answers for you here:

National Portrait Gallery artwork mural of a nurse wearing a face mask as Greater Manchester is set to enter Tier 3 lockdown

People make their way to work past an electronic Covid-19 warning sign as Manchester is set to enter Tier 3 lockdown

A quiet bar in the Northern Quarter of Manchester as the region hurtles towards a Tier 3 lockdown this week

WHAT IS THE TIER SYSTEM?

England is currently divided into three tiers, allowing officials to impose restrictions with varying degrees of severity on Covid-19 'hotspots' without needing to plunge the country into a blanket lockdown.

Tier 1 ('medium risk' alert) covers most of the country and consists of the current national measures including the Rule of Six, the 10pm hospitality curfew, social distancing and face coverings.

Tier 2 ('high risk' alert) bans households or support bubbles from meeting indoors, though separate households can meet outdoors and in public gardens provided they keep two metres apart.

Tier 3 ('very high risk' alert) bans different households from meeting indoors and in private gardens.

Pubs, bars and restaurants will be closed as a baseline, though the Government and local authorities can decide if further restrictions on hospitality, leisure, entertainment and personal care sectors will be needed.

Schools and universities will stay open in these areas.

Tier 3 bans different households from meeting indoors and in private gardens (pictured, police in Platt Fields park)

HOUSEHOLDS

Under Tier 3 rules, people are not allowed to mix with people from other household indoors, while non-essential travel should be reduced instead of being banned outright. 

This applies to visiting friends or family at home, as well as public indoor settings such as hospitality and entertainment venues – from pubs and restaurants to cinemas and theatres.

Only tradespeople like electricians, plumbers and plastered can visit other people's homes, with the sole purpose of carrying out work.

Households are not allowed to mingle in most outdoor settings, including beer gardens and private gardens.

People can still meet friends and family in a public park, on a beach or in a forest, but they are expected to follow the Rule of Six.

Places of worship remain open, but residents of a Tier 3 area should avoid staying overnight in another part of the UK. 

People eat and drink outdoors in Manchester city centre as the region hurtles towards a Tier 3 lockdown this week

PUBS, BARS AND RESTAURANTS

Pubs and bars will be forced to close completely from midnight on Friday under Tier 3. However, they will not have to close if they serve 'substantial meals'.

The regulations refer to a 'table meal, and the meal is such as might be expected to be served as the main midday or main evening meal, or as a main course at either such meal'. 

They add 'a table meal is a meal eaten by a person seated at a table, or at a counter or other structure which serves the purposes of a table and is not used for the service of refreshments for consumption by persons not seated at a table or structure serving the purposes of a table'.

Alcohol could be served as part of these and it will be the police and councils job to enforce what passes as a 'substantial meal'. However, this does not include bar snacks. 

If pubs serve 'substantial meals', they will be subject to the 10pm hospitality curfew like in Tier 1 and Tier 2. 

Responding to Tier 3 measures set to be placed on Greater Manchester today, the British Beer and Pub Association claimed that pubs face devastation from the restrictions.  

BBPA called for more support to save the region's 1,900 pubs and 32,000 sector jobs as it said a stronger package of financial support is vital not just for pubs, but also brewers and their wider supply chain in Greater Manchester, if they are to survive the further severe trading restrictions or full closure they face. 

Emma McClarkin, its chief executive, said: 'Tier 3 restrictions will have a devastating impact on pubs, brewers and their wider supply chain in Greater Manchester unless a proper support package is available to all businesses impacted. 

A quiet restaurant at lunchtime in Manchester city centre, as the region hurtles towards a Tier 3 lockdown this week

'Pubs in Greater Manchester were already struggling with the 10pm curfew, rule of six, lower levels of consumer confidence and a huge drop in domestic and international tourism.

'These additional tier three measures mean pubs in Greater Manchester can only remain open if they serve substantial meals, but with even more restrictions including no mixed household groups either inside or outside and only being allowed to serve alcohol with a substantial meal. 

'This will kill the business model of more than 600 food led pubs. The remaining 1,300 pubs who don't serve substantial meals will be forced to close completely. The survival of all pubs in either of these categories is hanging perilously in the balance.

'Thousands of jobs will be lost too if the Government doesn't take action. We are a people business – our staff and customers are everything – we are nothing without them. In Greater Manchester alone, 32,000 livelihoods are supported by these local pubs.

'Government must now do the right thing and provide our sector with a job retention scheme that will truly protect jobs. 

'Now Greater Manchester has been placed in Tier 3, the restrictions must be reviewed on a frequent basis – at least every two weeks – and re-categorised as soon as deemed appropriate. 

'To do this the Government must clarify what criteria the decisions for transitioning in and out of the tiering system will be based on. We urge the Government to work closely with our sector on this.' 

A quiet pub at lunchtime in Manchester city centre, as the region hurtles towards a Tier 3 lockdown this week

WORK

Tier 3 regulations state that people should work from home where they can, though key workers – including emergency workers and teachers – are exempt.

The Government has gone back and forth on its guidance about getting people back to their desks as shutdown measures imposed in March inflict huge damage on the UK economy. 

Official figures for the fall in GDP during the three months to June have been revised down from 20.4 per cent to 19.8 per cent. However, the scale of the drop still makes it the biggest on record. 

And the Office for National Statistics (ONS) has also concluded that UK plc performed worse during the first quarter of the year.

The economy contracted 2.5 per cent between January and March, compared to previous estimate of 2.2 per cent. 

Overall GDP is now 21.8 per cent smaller than at the end of 2019 – underlining the threat to millions of jobs as Boris Johnson struggles to balance getting the country back up and running with tackling a rise in cases.

There have been some signs of hope, with the Bank of England suggesting the recovery has been better than expected so far.  

People in Manchester walk past a sign reading 'Do your bit' with advice to wash hands, wear a mask and keep 2m apart

FACE COVERINGS

People are required to wear face masks in supermarkets, post offices, on public transport, at railway stations and airports, in hospitality venues and where social distancing is not possible in Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 areas.

Young children, people with medical conditions including asthma, and those who find wearing coverings distressing are exempt from wearing masks.

CCTV that blocks people from entering a shop if they are not wearing a face covering is being set up across the UK. 

The cameras use artificial intelligence to determine whether a person walking towards the shop doors is wearing a mask in a bid to help staff tackle 'difficult' customers.

A screen fitted outside the shop's doors will display a green or red message to automatically allow or deny access to the person.

Customers who aren't wearing a mask will be refused entry automatically and the doors will remain shut. 

CCTV.co.uk, who install CCTV systems across the UK for both home and commercial clients, said the technology will protect staff from difficult shoppers or 'potentially worse'. 

But it has not been specified how the technology will work around those who are exempt from wearing a face mask. 

gyms are allowed to remain open in Tier 3 as fitness enthusiasts insist that exercise will build up people's immune systems and prevent falling ill with Covid-19 (pictured, people working out at a gym in Manchester)

LEISURE FACILITIES

Indoor leisure facilities such as casinos, bingo halls and betting shops will also be forced to shutter under Tier 3 regulations.

Childrens' soft play areas must also close, in a move that is sure to disappoint parents who may be required to work from home.

However, gyms are allowed to remain open in Tier 3 provided they are Covid-secure, as fitness enthusiasts insist that exercise will build up people's immune systems and prevent falling ill with Covid-19. 

A Liverpool gym owner who is refusing to close down during the city's Tier 3 lockdown issued a new rallying cry to supporters, claiming he has now won the support of 'police, fellow fitness bosses, the mayors and MPs'.

Nick Whitcombe defied the Government's tougher lockdown rules and refused to close Bodytech Fitness in Moreton, saying 'he won't have one to come back to' if he did. 

But he was quickly slapped with a £1,000 fine, after a member of the public reported the gym was still open, before armed officers turned up at the gym to demand he close it.

The gym boss then launched a campaign in which he vowed to stay open to members despite the threat of fines and closure.

A petition, which has now been signed more than 400,000 times, was launched, while a GoFundMe page, which was set to help pay any fines, has since topped £50,000. Mr Whitcombe has since revealed the money will go to mental health charities if the fines are overturned. 

Under both Tier 2 and Tier 3, 15 guests can attend wedding ceremonies but receptions are banned. Funerals can have up to 30 mourners, with only 15 people allowed at the wake (pictured, a bride in Russia ahead of her wedding)

WEDDINGS AND FUNERALS

Under both Tier 2 and Tier 3, 15 guests can attend wedding ceremonies but receptions are banned. Funerals can have up to 30 mourners, with only 15 people allowed at the wake.

Restrictions on funerals have been blasted as heavy-handed after the shocking moment a member of staff at a crematorium interrupted a funeral in order to berate mourners for being too close together was caught on camera.

Craig Bicknell, from Milton Keynes, revealed he had moved his chair in order to comfort his mother at the funeral of his father Alan Wright on 2nd October at Crownhill Crematorium, before other mourners followed suit.

But it wasn't long before a member of staff interrupted the service by waving his arms and shouting at the mourners to 'move the chairs back'.

Craig said he and his brother Paul were left devastated by the 'telling off', as they grieved the loss of their father who died from a heart attack in September. 

Writing on Facebook he said: 'I can sit in a restaurant, I can sit in a pub, I can live at her house, I can travel in a limousine to the crematorium with 6. But when I want to give my mum a cuddle at dads funeral, a man flies out mid service shouting stop the service and makes us split... A devastating day made even worse.' 

A spokesperson for Milton Keynes Council said: 'We are sorry to have upset this family. We don't usually step in if a guest needs to be comforted by another family member and in this instance should have taken a more considered approach.'

Schools and universities are all remaining open under Tier 3 restrictions, though universities are mostly moving towards online teaching (pictured, a demonstration of the Smartschool Life distance learning lesson)

SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES

Schools and universities are all remaining open under Tier 3 restrictions, though universities are mostly moving towards online teaching.

Thousands of students across the UK have complained of being confined to their halls of residence by university authorities clamping down on Covid-19 outbreaks.

The vast majority of Covid-19 cases in recent weeks have been among young people, which coincides with the start of the new academic year.

Universities have taken drastic measures to suppress Covid-19 as public health officials claim that asymptomatic carriers are likely to pass the virus on to the elderly.

Mass social gatherings on university campuses are banned across all three tiers, with some ministers having told students not to have sex with their peers.

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