The Government’s chief scientific adviser Sir Patrick Vallance has provided an update as to when a coronavirus vaccine could be made available in the UK.
Here's the latest on a vaccine.
When will a coronavirus vaccine be ready in the UK?
Sir Patrick said that small amounts of a coronavirus vaccine could be made available to certain groups of people before the end of the year.
He added that good progress is being made on developing a vaccine that can fight Covid-19.
In a televised press conference on Monday (September 21) with England’s chief medical officer, Professor Chris Whitty, Sir Patrick said a number of candidates have shown they can generate an immune response that ought to be protective.
He added: “We don’t yet know they will work but there is increasing evidence that is pointing in the right direction and it is possible that some vaccine could be available before the end of the year in small amounts for certain groups.
“Much more likely that we’ll see vaccines becoming available over the first half of next year, again not certain but pointed in the right direction, which then of course gives the possibility of a different approach to this virus.”
How many coronavirus vaccine trials are taking place around the world?
There are more than 240 vaccine trials taking place across the world, with more than 40 in clinical trials.
Nine of the trials are in the later stages, at phase two or three, including the University of Oxford’s vaccine trial.
Researchers at Imperial College London are also recruiting volunteers for the vaccine they are developing.
When could a 'mass roll-out' of the coronavirus vaccine be available in the UK?
Earlier, Health Secretary Matt Hancock told ITV’s This Morning on Monday that a “mass roll-out” of a vaccine could be seen in the early part of next year if all goes well.
He added: “Hopefully in the first few months – there’s still a chance of it coming on stream before Christmas, but we’ve then got to roll it out and the first people who will get it are the people who are most vulnerable – people in care homes, older people.
“There’s a series of different vaccines, but we are talking about – essentially, for it to have an impact on how we live our lives – we’re talking about the start of next year.”
Speaking at the press briefing, Prof Whitty also warned that the virus is not getting milder as some people have suggested.
Professor Chris Whitty: 'Next six months would have to be taken very seriously'
Prof Whitty suggested science would eventually “ride to our rescue” but that in the next six months it would have to be taken very seriously.
He said: “Lots of people have said maybe this is a milder virus than it was in April.
“But I’m afraid, although that would be great if that were true, we see no evidence that is the case.”
Prof Whitty added: “What we’ve seen in other countries, and are now clearly seeing here, is that they’re not staying just in the younger age groups, and moving up the age bands and the mortality rates will be similar to – slightly lower than they were previously – but they will be similar to what we saw previously.”
What is the latest on antibodies?
Sir Patrick also said the size of the UK population with antibodies was still low, making the “vast majority” of people “susceptible” to Covid-19.
He explained that antibodies were not an “absolute protection” either, adding that immunity to the disease fades over time.
Sir Patrick said: “What we see is that something under 8 per cent of the population have been infected as we measure the antibodies.
“So 8 per cent, about three million or so people, may have been infected and have antibodies.
“It means the vast majority of us are not protected in any way and are susceptible to this disease.”
The Government’s chief scientific adviser added that antibodies in city populations were a “little higher” and that as many as 17 per cent of people in London could have them, making the spread slower in those areas.